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Name: 
 

Plant Evolution and Classification



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The ancestors of today’s land plants were probably
a.
brown algae.
c.
green algae.
b.
red algae.
d.
lichens.
 

 2. 

The challenges faced by early land plants included
a.
conserving water.
b.
reproducing on land.
c.
absorbing minerals from the rocky surface.
d.
All of the above
 

 3. 

The waxy protective covering of a land plant is called a
a.
cuticle.
c.
rhizome.
b.
capsule.
d.
stoma.
 

 4. 

The cuticle
a.
helps reduce the evaporation of fluids from a plant.
b.
is a plant adaptation to an aquatic environment.
c.
is a reproductive structure in some plants.
d.
is crucial to plant cell nourishment.
 

 5. 

Some land plants developed an internal system of interconnected tubes and vessels called
a.
cuticles.
b.
nonvascular canals.
c.
the circulatory system.
d.
vascular tissues.
 

 6. 

The xylem in a plant
a.
transports food from the leaves.
b.
transports water and minerals to the stems and leaves.
c.
exchanges carbon dioxide with the atmosphere.
d.
All of the above
 

 7. 

liverworts, hornworts, mosses : nonvascular plants ::
a.
gymnosperms, angiosperms : bryophytes
b.
ferns : mosses
c.
gymnosperms, angiosperms : vascular plants
d.
bryophytes, liverworts : vascular plants
 

 8. 

gymnosperms : naked seeds ::
a.
pollen : mosses
b.
ferns : seeds
c.
liverwort : vascular tissue
d.
angiosperms : enclosed seeds
 

 9. 

The diploid form in a plant’s life cycle is called the
a.
sporophyte.
b.
gametophyte.
c.
parental generation.
d.
alternate generation.
 

 10. 

The haploid form in a plant’s life cycle is called the
a.
sporophyte.
b.
gametophyte.
c.
parental generation.
d.
alternate generation.
 

 11. 

Alternation between a haploid stage and a diploid stage in a plant’s life cycle is called
a.
generational recycling.
b.
periodic gametogenesis.
c.
alternating forms.
d.
alternation of generations.
 

 12. 

In plants, haploid gametes are produced as a result of
a.
fertilization.
c.
encapsulation.
b.
meiosis.
d.
mitosis.
 

 13. 

The dominant generation in vascular plants is the
a.
gametophyte.
c.
angiosperm.
b.
gymnosperm.
d.
sporophyte.
 

 14. 

vascular plants : sporophytes ::
a.
sporophytic plants : gametophytes
b.
nonvascular plants : gametophytes
c.
spores : gametes
d.
plants with seeds : seedless plants
 

 15. 

sporophytes : spores ::
a.
sporophytes : gametophytes
b.
gametophytes : gametes
c.
gametophytes : spores
d.
sporophytes : gametes
 

 16. 

Which of the following is not a nonvascular plant?
a.
moss
c.
hornwort
b.
liverwort
d.
fern
 

 17. 

Which of the following is not characteristic of all nonvascular plants?
a.
They produce seeds.
b.
They have a life cycle characterized by alternation of generations.
c.
They produce spores.
d.
They require water for sexual reproduction.
 

 18. 

Which of the following is a reason why mosses are good pioneer plants?
a.
They can survive in very wet areas.
b.
They can survive in areas that receive only low levels of sunlight.
c.
They can create a layer of soil on bare rock.
d.
They grow very slowly.
 

 19. 

The water-retaining ability of peat moss makes it ideal for
a.
use in garden-soil mixes.
b.
use in packing bulbs and flowers for shipping.
c.
use in houseplant soils.
d.
All of the above
 

 20. 

All of the following developed in some vascular plants and are not present in any nonvascular plants except
a.
pollen.
c.
chlorophyll.
b.
deep roots.
d.
seeds.
 

 21. 

The primary distinguishing characteristics of all vascular plants are
a.
xylem and phloem; true roots, stems, and leaves; pollen; seeds.
b.
xylem and phloem; true roots, stems, and leaves; spores.
c.
true roots, stems, and leaves; spores.
d.
xylem and phloem; true roots, stems, and leaves.
 

 22. 

Which of the following is not a seed plant?
a.
a flowering plant
c.
a fern
b.
a pine tree
d.
a ginkgo
 

 23. 

Which of the following is characteristic of all seed plants?
a.
a seed containing an embryo, a nutrient supply, and a protective coat
b.
enclosure and protection of seeds within a fruit
c.
production of flowers
d.
All of the above
 

 24. 

Pines, spruces, and firs are
a.
angiosperms.
c.
flowering plants.
b.
gymnosperms.
d.
sometimes nonvascular.
 

 25. 

The tallest trees in the world are species of
a.
conifers.
c.
liverworts.
b.
dicots.
d.
angiosperms.
 

 26. 

Which of the following were the first land plants to evolve seeds?
a.
angiosperms
c.
mosses
b.
gymnosperms
d.
ferns
 

 27. 

Seed plants are the dominant land plants because
a.
they include the largest plants on Earth.
b.
the seeds they produce enable the plant to survive in a dormant state when conditions are not suitable for growth.
c.
they are vascular plants with large root systems, so they can obtain water from any kind of environment.
d.
they produce flowers that are pollinated by insects, enabling them to produce many offspring.
 

 28. 

Monocots have
a.
leaves with branching veins.
b.
flower parts in multiples of four or five.
c.
leaves with parallel veins.
d.
two cotyledons.
 

 29. 

Flowering plants are classified as monocots or dicots according to their number of
a.
leaves.
c.
meristems.
b.
roots.
d.
cotyledons.
 

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
 

 30. 

In leaves, the openings called ____________________ regulate the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen.
 

 

 31. 

The surface of a vascular plant is covered by a waxy, waterproof layer called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 32. 

One of the first environmental challenges that early land plants had to overcome was finding a way to conserve ____________________.
 

 

 33. 

The tissues that transport water and minerals within a plant make up the ____________________ system.
 

 

 34. 

____________________ are seed plants with uncovered seeds.
 

 

 35. 

In alternation of generations, the ____________________ generation alternates with the diploid generation.
 

 

 36. 

plant_evo_files/i0380000.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. The cycle shown in the diagram is referred to as _________________________.
 

 

 37. 

The fusion of two gametes results in the production of a(n) ____________________ sporophyte.
 

 

 38. 

The haploid form of a plant is the ____________________ generation.
 

 

 39. 

Conifers produce ____________________ to protect their seeds.
 

 

 40. 

The sporophyte generation produces haploid spores by the process of ____________________.
 

 

 41. 

Peat bogs contain organic matter that decomposes very slowly because of a(n) ____________________ produced by peat moss.
 

 

 42. 

Bryophytes have a dominant ____________________ generation.
 

 

 43. 

In mosses and liverworts, the ____________________ generation is the dominant generation.
 

 

 44. 

A rootlike structure that anchors plants in the phylum Bryophyta is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 45. 

The ability of mosses to absorb and retain ____________________ contributes to their ability to help prevent soil erosion.
 

 

 46. 

Partially decomposed moss plants of the genus Sphagnum are dried and used as a source of ____________________ for heating.
 

 

 47. 

A plant that has flower parts that occur in multiples of four or five is usually a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 48. 

Most ____________________ have thin, transparent leaflike structures along a stemlike axis.
 

 

 49. 

Nonvascular plants known as ____________________ usually have cells with a single large chloroplast, similar to algae.
 

 



 
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