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Name: 
 

Plant Structure and Function



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following associations between a plant cell type and its characteristics is incorrect?
a.
collenchyma cell—thin cell walls; do not occur in groups
b.
parenchyma cell—cube-shaped or elongated; large vacuole
c.
sclerenchyma cell—thick, rigid cell walls
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

 2. 

Which of the following types of plant cells provides structural support and is typically dead at functional maturity?
a.
collenchyma
c.
sclerenchyma
b.
parenchyma
d.
None of the above
 

 3. 

The conducting cells of phloem are called
a.
tracheids.
c.
sieve plates.
b.
sieve tube members.
d.
vessel elements.
 

 4. 

In xylem tissue, water moves from tracheid to tracheid through
a.
pits.
c.
sieve tubes.
b.
vessel elements.
d.
companion cells.
 

 5. 

The outermost layer consisting of ground tissue in a stem is the
a.
sapwood.
c.
pith.
b.
nodes.
d.
cortex.
 

 6. 

vascular tissue : transport of fluids ::
a.
epidermis : support
b.
dermal tissue : storage
c.
dermal tissue : transport of fluids
d.
ground tissue : metabolism
 

 7. 

Regions of active cell division in plants are called
a.
meristems.
c.
phloem.
b.
xylem.
d.
dermal tissue.
 

 8. 

Meristems can be found
a.
only at the tips of roots.
b.
only at the tips of stems.
c.
at the tips of stems and roots.
d.
None of the above
 

 9. 

Which of the following types of meristems is found in some monocots above the bases of leaves and stems?
a.
apical meristems
b.
vascular cambium
c.
intercalary meristems
d.
cork cambium
 

 10. 

The lengthening of plant roots and shoots is called
a.
secondary growth.
c.
primary growth.
b.
germination.
d.
vascular growth.
 

 11. 

During periods of primary growth at apical meristems, stems and roots
a.
become wider.
b.
become longer.
c.
maintain a constant number of cells.
d.
undergo photoperiodism.
 

 12. 

secondary growth : width ::
a.
secondary growth : height
b.
lateral meristem : length
c.
apical meristem : width
d.
primary growth : length
 

 13. 

The primary function of root hairs is
a.
to strengthen roots as they grow downward.
b.
to transport food up the stem.
c.
to absorb water and minerals.
d.
to store water.
 

 14. 

leaves : carbon dioxide from the air ::
a.
leaves : water from the air
b.
roots : light from the air
c.
roots : carbon dioxide from the air
d.
roots : nutrients from the soil
 

 15. 

Which of the following are taproots?
a.
underground roots of grass plants
b.
prop roots of corn plants
c.
roots of radish plants
d.
aerial roots of orchids
 

 16. 

Which of the following is not characteristic of fibrous roots?
a.
many branch roots
b.
shallow roots
c.
dominant primary root
d.
possible development from the base of the stem
 

 17. 

Which of the following is not characteristic of secondary growth of roots?
a.
Vascular cambium is formed.
b.
Secondary xylem is produced toward the inside of the root and secondary phloem is produced toward the outside of the root.
c.
Cork cambium is formed.
d.
It occurs in monocot, dicot, and gymnosperm roots.
 

 18. 

Which of the following is the function of the endodermis?
a.
water absorption
b.
water storage
c.
regulation of passage of water and minerals into the vascular tissue
d.
production of new cells for secondary growth
 
 
The diagram below shows the stem of a coleus plant.

plant_sruct_files/i0200000.jpg
 

 19. 

Refer to the illustration above. The tissue labeled “1” in the diagram is called
a.
meristem.
c.
phloem.
b.
xylem.
d.
ground tissue.
 

 20. 

Refer to the illustration above. In the diagram, the tissue labeled “2,” which conducts water and is made of elongated cells that connect end to end, is called
a.
meristem.
c.
phloem.
b.
xylem.
d.
ground tissue.
 

 21. 

Refer to the illustration above. In the diagram, the tissue labeled “3,” which transports sugars from regions where they are made to regions where they are used, is called
a.
meristem.
c.
phloem.
b.
xylem.
d.
ground tissue.
 

 22. 

The ground tissue in the center of roots and stems
a.
turns into meristem.
b.
transports food.
c.
provides support.
d.
germinates at least once a year.
 

 23. 

Leaves connect to the stems of plants at the
a.
lateral buds.
c.
nodes.
b.
pith.
d.
internodes.
 

 24. 

Secondary xylem and phloem are produced from the
a.
cork cambium.
c.
apical meristems.
b.
vascular cambium.
d.
bark.
 

 25. 

xylem : inner side of vascular cambium ::
a.
vascular cambium : cork cambium
b.
cork : vascular cambium
c.
phloem : outer side of vascular cambium
d.
phloem : inner side of vascular cambium
 

 26. 

Bark contains
a.
xylem and phloem.
c.
phloem and cork cells.
b.
sapwood.
d.
mesophyll.
 

 27. 

In a woody stem, cork cambium
a.
forms phloem.
b.
forms xylem.
c.
produces the outer bark.
d.
becomes vascular cambium.
 

 28. 

The movement of water through a plant is caused by
a.
the attraction of water molecules for each other.
b.
capillary action.
c.
transpiration.
d.
All of the above
 

 29. 

The loss of water by the leaves and stem of a plant is called
a.
translocation.
c.
active transport.
b.
osmosis.
d.
transpiration.
 

 30. 

The phloem in a plant
a.
transports sugars.
b.
transports water and minerals.
c.
exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen with the atmosphere.
d.
None of the above
 

 31. 

The transport of food from the leaf to the rest of the plant is called
a.
translocation.
c.
active transport.
b.
osmosis.
d.
transpiration.
 

 32. 

A hypothesis that explains the movement of sugar in a plant is the
a.
transpiration hypothesis.
c.
pressure-flow hypothesis.
b.
translocation hypothesis.
d.
source-sink hypothesis.
 

 33. 

cohesion : adhesion ::
a.
hydrogen : polar
c.
hand : people
b.
book : pages
d.
night : day
 
 
The diagram below shows a portion of a plant’s vascular system.

plant_sruct_files/i0360000.jpg
 

 34. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure 2 is a
a.
tracheid.
c.
vessel element.
b.
companion cell.
d.
sieve tube member.
 

 35. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure 3 is a
a.
tracheid.
c.
vessel element.
b.
companion cell.
d.
sieve tube member.
 

 36. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which structure allows the cytoplasm of one cell to connect to the cytoplasm of a neighboring cell?
a.
1
c.
4
b.
3
d.
5
 

 37. 

The xylem in a plant
a.
transports sugars.
b.
transports water and minerals.
c.
exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen with the atmosphere.
d.
None of the above
 

 38. 

Scientists studying the transport of sugars in plants found it difficult to conduct experiments that didn’t damage the plants they were studying. Some of them decided to use some insects they knew fed on plants. The insects they chose were aphids, which have mouthparts that they insert into plants and use to suck out nutrients. Many of these aphids also release excess sugars from the anal end of their digestive tracts. These substances are called honeydew because they are released as sugary droplets. The scientists conducted the following experiments:
(1) They measured the rate at which honeydew was released from aphids feeding on cucumber plants. The average rate was two drops per hour.
(2) They froze some aphids and the plant parts to which the aphids were attached. They then examined cross sections of the plant parts using an electron microscope. They found that the tips of the aphids’ mouthparts were in individual cells in the phloem tissue.
(3) They anesthetized aphids feeding on plants and then cut away the aphids, leaving the mouthparts in place. They noted that the honeydew continued to be released through the mouthparts at a rate of two drops per hour. They also analyzed the honeydew and found that it had the same chemical composition as the sugars transported in the plants.

Which of the following statements is not supported by the data obtained in these experiments?
a.
The contents of the phloem are under pressure.
b.
Sugars are transported in the phloem of plants.
c.
Sugars are actively transported into cells of the phloem.
d.
Some aphids take up more sugars from plants than they can use.
 

 39. 

plant_sruct_files/i0420000.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. Which of the leaves is a doubly compound leaf?
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 40. 

In plants, the ground tissue that is made up of chloroplast-rich cells is the
a.
vascular bundle.
c.
pith.
b.
petiole.
d.
mesophyll.
 

 41. 

The tissue of the leaf mesophyll that is located directly below the upper epidermis and consists of tightly packed column-shaped cells is the
a.
palisade layer.
c.
adventitious layer.
b.
cortex.
d.
spongy mesophyll.
 
 
The diagram below shows a leaf cross section.

plant_sruct_files/i0450000.jpg
 

 42. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which label indicates the spongy layer?
a.
2
c.
4
b.
3
d.
5
 

 43. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure 1
a.
is the cuticle.
c.
covers the epidermis.
b.
protects the leaf.
d.
All of the above
 

 44. 

Refer to the illustration above. The vein is made up of
a.
only xylem vessels.
b.
only phloem vessels.
c.
both xylem and phloem vessels.
d.
neither xylem nor phloem vessels.
 

 45. 

Photosynthesis enables plants to produce most of the organic molecules they need. This process requires the use of all of the following except
a.
carbon dioxide.
c.
light.
b.
water.
d.
glucose.
 

 46. 

Which of the following is an adaptation found in leaves of shade-grown plants?
a.
high density of chloroplasts
b.
small leaf area
c.
chloroplasts not shading each other
d.
dense hair coatings
 

 47. 

The stomata are responsible for
a.
translocation.
b.
leaf growth.
c.
regulation of water loss.
d.
transport of minerals.
 

 48. 

The guard cells that surround a stoma
a.
have no cell walls.
b.
swell with water, causing the stoma to open.
c.
shrivel up when opening the stoma.
d.
are responsible for translocation.
 

 49. 

guard cells : stomata ::
a.
can openers : cans
c.
cushions : rocking chairs
b.
hammers : nails
d.
trout : stream
 

 50. 

cuticle : above-ground parts ::
a.
vascular system : plant
c.
guard cell : stoma
b.
sperm : pollen
d.
root system : wax
 

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
 

 51. 

Photosynthetic and storage tissues of plants are made up of ____________________ cells.
 

 

 52. 

____________________ are narrow, elongated, thick-walled sclerenchyma cells that taper at each end.
 

 

 53. 

The lateral meristem that produces secondary vascular tissue is called the _________________________.
 

 

 54. 

The lateral meristem that produces the cork cells of the outer bark is called the ____________________.
 

 

 55. 

Plants grow at the tips of roots and stems in regions of active cell division called ____________________.
 

 

 56. 

Cell division in the ____________________ adds layers of new cells around the outside of a plant’s body.
 

 

 57. 

Growth that occurs from the formation of new cells at the tip of a plant is called ____________________.
 

 

 58. 

Growth that causes a plant to increase in width is called _________________________.
 

 

 59. 

The thickening of a plant body by the production of new xylem and phloem is called ____________________ growth.
 

 

 60. 

The ____________________ of plants absorb water and minerals necessary for growth.
 

 

 61. 

The two main types of root systems are fibrous root systems and ____________________ systems.
 

 

 62. 

Primary growth in roots occurs in cells of the _________________________, carbohydrate storage occurs in cells of the ____________________, and water absorption occurs through cells of the ____________________.
 

 

 63. 

Flexible, soft, and usually green stems are called ____________________ stems.
 

 

 64. 

Edible parts of the potato plant are modified stems called ____________________, which grow underground and store starch.
 

 

 65. 

The darker wood in the center of a tree trunk is called ____________________.
 

 

 66. 

Wood consists primarily of _________________________ cells.
 

 

 67. 

The transport of organic molecules from the leaf to the rest of the plant is called ____________________.
 

 

 68. 

The broad, flat portion of a typical leaf is called the ____________________.
 

 

 69. 

When the guard cells that surround a stoma fill with water, the stoma ____________________.
 

 

 70. 

____________________ ions play an important role in opening and closing stomata.
 

 



 
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